This is the baseline deployment recommendation we have for the LDS product when Juju is not used. At a minimum, we have two machines:

  • a database server, running Ubuntu 16.04 LTS ("xenial"), with Postgresql 9.5
  • an application server, running the same version of Ubuntu as the Database server, hosting the Landscape services

Network access:

  • the APP server needs http access to in order to download the USN database and detect security updates. Without this, the available updates won't be distinguished between security related and regular updates

  • the APP server also needs http access to the public Ubuntu archives and, in order to update the hash-id-database files and detect new distribution releases. Without this, the release upgrade feature won't work

  • the APP server also needs https access to in order to query for available LDS releases. If this access is not given, the only drawback is that LDS won't display a note about the available releases in the account page.

  • if you want to use the Cloud Installer, the APP server needs access to:
    • your MAAS server

This is a long document. Don't be intimidated. If you want a quick installation that just works, but doesn't scale to a large number of machines, then install the landscape-server-quickstart package.

Preparing for the installation

What you will need:

  • Ubuntu 16.04 LTS ("xenial") server install media
  • Landscape Dedicated Server license file. If you don't have one, a free demo license with a small number of seats will be used instead.
  • Server X509 certificate and key, signed by a publicly known Certificate Authority, and issued for the FQDN hostname of the application server

    {i} Custom CAs can be used, but this is not documented here as it's considered an advanced topic. Administrators deploying custom CAs most likely know what needs to be done. In any case, this quick how-to may help: creating a simple CA and issuing a certificate

    /!\ You MUST use the same version of Ubuntu on both the Application server and the Database server.

Installing the Database Server

After having installed the basic server profile of Ubuntu Server, we need to install the postgresql database and configure it for use by Landscape. Please follow these steps:

Install postgresql and required libraries

In the database server, run this command to install the database software:

sudo apt-get install postgresql-9.5 python-apt postgresql-plpython-9.5 postgresql-contrib-9.5 postgresql-9.5-debversion

Create a superuser Landscape can use

Landscape needs a database superuser in order to create the lower privilege users it needs to perform routine tasks and access the data, as well as alter the database schema whenever needed:

sudo -u postgres createuser --createdb --createrole --superuser --pwprompt landscape_superuser
  • /!\ Use a strong password! (But don't put a @ in it)

If this database is to be shared with other services, it is recommended that another cluster is created instead for those services (or for Landscape). Please refer to the Postgresql documentation in that case.

Configure PostgreSQL

We now need to allow the application server to access this database server. Landscape uses several users for this access, so we need to allow them all. Edit the /etc/postgresql/9.5/main/pg_hba.conf file and add the following to the end:

host all landscape,landscape_maintenance,landscape_superuser <IP-OF-APP> md5

Replace <IP-OF-APP> with the IP address of the application server, followed by /32. Alternatively, you can specify the network address using the CIDR notation. Some examples of valid values:

  • the IP address of the APP server

  • a network address

Now come changes to the main postgresql configuration file. Edit /etc/postgresql/9.5/main/postgresql.conf and:

  • find the listen_addresses parameter, which is probably commented, and change it to:

listen_addresses = '*'
  • Set max_prepared_transactions to the same value as max_connections. For example:

max_connections = 400
max_prepared_transactions = 400

Finally, restart the database service:

sudo /etc/init.d/postgresql restart

Tune PostgreSQL

It is strongly recommended to fine tune this PostgreSQL installation according to the hardware of the server. Keeping the default settings (especially of max_connections) is known to be problematic. Please see the following resources for more information.

You can also install the pgtune package for a first hint at what should be optimized for your particular hardware.

  • /!\ If this tuning changed the value of max_connections, make sure you also change max_prepared_transactions to the same value!

Installing the application server

The application server will host the following Landscape services:

  • application server
  • message server
  • ping server
  • job handler
  • async-frontend
  • combo loader
  • api server
  • package upload service
  • juju-sync
  • package search

Additionally, other services needed by Landscape will also be running on this machine, such as:

  • apache
  • rabbitmq-server

Let's begin.

Adding the Landscape package archive and installing the package

Landscape is distributed in a public PPA. You can add it to the system with these commands:

    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:landscape/17.03
    sudo apt-get update

Now install the server package and its dependencies:

sudo apt-get install landscape-server rabbitmq-server apache2

Install the license file

If you were given a license file, copy it to /etc/landscape:

sudo cp license.txt /etc/landscape

Make sure it's readable by the landscape user and root.

If you have no such file, the package will use a limited free license.

Configure rabbitmq

Just run the following commands, replacing <password> with a password of your choice. It will be needed later.

sudo rabbitmqctl add_user landscape <password>
sudo rabbitmqctl add_vhost landscape
sudo rabbitmqctl set_permissions -p landscape landscape ".*" ".*" ".*"

To make rabbitmq listen only on the loopback interface (, please create the file /etc/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.conf with the following content:


Then restart it:

sudo /etc/init.d/rabbitmq-server restart

Configure database and broker access

We now need to make some configuration changes to the /etc/landscape/service.conf file to tell Landscape how to use some other services: Please make the following changes:

  • section [stores]:

    • host: the IP or hostname of the database server. if not the default Postgresql port (5432), add a :NNNN port definition after the hostname (e.g.,

  • section [broker]:

    • replace the password value with the password chosen above when configuring rabbitmq

  • section [schema]:

    • change the value of store_user to the landscape super user we created above during the DB installation

    • add an entry for store_password with the password that was chosen in that same step

Run the Landscape setup script

This script will bootstrap the databases Landscape needs to work and setup the remaining of the configuration:

sudo setup-landscape-server
  • {i} Depending on the hardware, this may take several minutes to complete

Configure Landscape services and schema upgrades

We need to enable the Landscape services now. Please edit /etc/default/landscape-server and change the RUN_ALL line to yes:

# To run all Landscape services set this to "yes"
  • {i} If more performance and availability are needed out of LDS, it's possible to spread out the services amongst several machines. In that case, for example, one could run message servers in one machine, application servers in another one, etc.

The message, application and ping services can be configured to run multiple instances. If your hardware has several cores and enough memory (4Gb or more), running two or more of each will improve performance. To run multiple instances of a service, just set the value in the respective RUN_ line to the number of instances. For example, if you want to run two message servers, just set:

  • {i} In order to take advantage of this multiple-instances setting, you need to configure some sort of load balancer or proxy. See the README.multiple-services file in the landscape-server package documentation directory for an example using Apache's proxy_loadbalancer module.

In that same file, the UPGRADE_SCHEMA option needs to be reviewed. If set to yes, whenever the package landscape-server is updated it will attempt to update the database schema too. It is a very convenient setting, but please think about the following before enabling it:

  • schema updates can take several minutes
  • if the package is updated while the database is offline, or unreachable, the update will fail
  • you should have a backup of the database before updating the package

Without this setting enabled, a package update might result in services that won't start anymore because of a needed schema change. In that case:

  • stop all the Landscape services
  • backup your database
  • run sudo setup-landscape-server on the application server. This will update the schema

  • start all Landscape services again

Webserver configuration

Landscape uses Apache to, among other things, redirect requests to each service and provide SSL support. The usual way to do this in Ubuntu is to create a Virtual Host for Landscape.

Below is a suggested configuration file that does just that. Install it as /etc/apache2/sites-available/landscape.conf and change the following values:

  • @hostname@: the FQDN of the hostname the clients (browser and machines) will use to connect to LDS. This is what will be in the URL, and it needs to be resolvable via DNS. For example,

  • @certfile@: the full filesystem path to where the SSL certificate for this server is installed. For example, /etc/ssl/certs/landscape_server.pem

  • @keyfile@: the full filesystem path to where the corresponding private key of that certificate is installed. For example, /etc/ssl/private/landscape_server.key

    /!\ If you are using a custom certificate authority for your SSL certificate, then you MUST put the CA public certificate in the file /etc/ssl/certs/landscape_server_ca.crt and uncomment the SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/ssl/certs/landscape_server_ca.crt line.

    /!\ Make sure the user apache runs as can read those files! Also, make sure the private key can only be read by root and that same apache user

<VirtualHost *:80>

    # This Hostname is the HTTP/1.1 hostname that users and Landscape clients will access
    # It must be the same as your SSL Certificate's CommonName
    # And the DNS Hostname for this machine
    # It is not recommended that you use an IP address here...
    ServerName @hostname@
    ServerAdmin webmaster@@hostname@
    ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/landscape.error-log
    CustomLog /var/log/apache2/landscape.access-log combined
    DocumentRoot /opt/canonical/landscape/canonical/landscape

    # Set a Via header in outbound requests to the proxy, so proxied apps can
    # know who the actual client is
    ProxyVia on
    ProxyTimeout 10

    <Directory "/">
      Options +Indexes
      Order deny,allow
      Allow from all
      Require all granted
      Satisfy Any
      ErrorDocument 403 /offline/unauthorized.html
      ErrorDocument 404 /offline/notfound.html

    Alias /offline /opt/canonical/landscape/canonical/landscape/offline
    Alias /static /opt/canonical/landscape/canonical/static
    Alias /repository /var/lib/landscape/landscape-repository

    <Location "/repository">
      Order deny,allow
      Deny from all
      ErrorDocument 403 default
      ErrorDocument 404 default
   <LocationMatch "/repository/[^/]+/[^/]+/(dists|pool)/.*">
     Allow from all
   <Location "/icons">
        Order allow,deny
        Allow from all
   <Location "/ping">
        Order allow,deny
        Allow from all

    <Location "/message-system">
        Order allow,deny
        Allow from all 

   <Location "/static">
      Header always append X-Frame-Options SAMEORIGIN

   <Location "/r">
      FileETag none
      ExpiresActive on
      ExpiresDefault "access plus 10 years"
      Header append Cache-Control "public"

    RewriteEngine On

    RewriteRule ^/r/([^/]+)/(.*) /$2 

    RewriteRule ^/ping$ http://localhost:8070/ping [P]

    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/server-status
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/icons
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/static/
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/offline/
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/repository/
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/message-system

    # Replace the @hostname@ with the DNS hostname for this machine.
    # If you change the port number that Apache is providing SSL on, you must change the 
    # port number 443 here.
    RewriteRule ^/(.*) https://@hostname@:443/$1 [R=permanent]

<VirtualHost *:443>
    ServerName @hostname@
    ServerAdmin webmaster@@hostname@

    ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/landscape.error-log
    CustomLog /var/log/apache2/landscape.access-log combined

    DocumentRoot /opt/canonical/landscape/canonical/landscape

    SSLEngine On
    SSLCertificateFile @certfile@
    SSLCertificateKeyFile @keyfile@
    # If you have either an SSLCertificateChainFile or, a self-signed CA signed certificate
    # uncomment the line below.
    # Note: Some versions of Apache will not accept the SSLCertificateChainFile directive.
    # Try using SSLCACertificateFile instead in that case.
    # SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/ssl/certs/landscape_server_ca.crt
    # Disable to avoid POODLE attack
    SSLProtocol all -SSLv3 -SSLv2
    SSLHonorCipherOrder On
    SSLCompression Off

    # Try to keep this close to the storm timeout. Not less, maybe slightly
    # more
    ProxyTimeout 305

    <Directory "/">
      Options -Indexes
      Order deny,allow
      Allow from all
      Require all granted
      Satisfy Any
      ErrorDocument 403 /offline/unauthorized.html
      ErrorDocument 404 /offline/notfound.html

    <Location "/ajax">
      Order allow,deny
      Allow from all

    Alias /offline /opt/canonical/landscape/canonical/landscape/offline
    Alias /config /opt/canonical/landscape/apacheroot
    Alias /hash-id-databases /var/lib/landscape/hash-id-databases

    ProxyRequests off
    <Proxy *>
       Order deny,allow
       Allow from all
       ErrorDocument 403 /offline/unauthorized.html
       ErrorDocument 500 /offline/exception.html
       ErrorDocument 502 /offline/unplanned-offline.html
       ErrorDocument 503 /offline/unplanned-offline.html

    ProxyPass /robots.txt !
    ProxyPass /favicon.ico !
    ProxyPass /offline !
    ProxyPass /static !

    ProxyPreserveHost on

   <Location "/r">
      FileETag none
      ExpiresActive on
      ExpiresDefault "access plus 10 years"
      Header append Cache-Control "public"

   <Location "/static">
      Header always append X-Frame-Options SAMEORIGIN

    RewriteEngine On

    RewriteRule ^/.*\+\+.* / [F]
    RewriteRule ^/r/([^/]+)/(.*) /$2

    # See /etc/landscape/service.conf for a description of all the
    # Landscape services and the ports they run on.
    # Replace the @hostname@ with the DNS hostname for this machine.
    # If you change the port number that Apache is providing SSL on, you must change the 
    # port number 443 here.
    RewriteRule ^/message-system http://localhost:8090/++vh++https:@hostname@:443/++/ [P,L]

    RewriteRule ^/ajax http://localhost:9090/ [P,L]
    RewriteRule ^/combo(.*) http://localhost:8080/combo$1 [P,L]
    RewriteRule ^/api http://localhost:9080/ [P,L]
    RewriteRule ^/attachment/(.*) http://localhost:8090/attachment/$1 [P,L]
    RewriteRule ^/upload/(.*) http://localhost:9100/$1 [P,L]

    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/robots.txt$
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/favicon.ico$
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/offline/
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/(r/[^/]+/)?static/
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/config/
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/hash-id-databases/

    # Replace the @hostname@ with the DNS hostname for this machine.
    # If you change the port number that Apache is providing SSL on, you must change the 
    # port number 443 here.
    RewriteRule ^/(.*) http://localhost:8080/++vh++https:@hostname@:443/++/$1 [P]

    <Location /message-system>
      Order allow,deny
      Allow from all

    <Location />
        # Insert filter
        SetOutputFilter DEFLATE

        # Don't compress images or .debs
        SetEnvIfNoCase Request_URI \
        \.(?:gif|jpe?g|png|deb)$ no-gzip dont-vary

        # Make sure proxies don't deliver the wrong content
        Header append Vary User-Agent env=!dont-vary


We now need to enable some modules:

for module in rewrite proxy_http ssl headers expires; do sudo a2enmod $module; done

Disable the default http vhost:

sudo a2dissite 000-default

Finally we can enable the new site:

sudo a2ensite landscape.conf
sudo service apache2 restart

Start Landscape services

Just run the helper script lsctl:

sudo lsctl restart

Setup first user

The first user that is created in LDS automatically becomes the administrator of the "standalone" account. To create it, please go to https://<servername> and fill in the requested information.

Configuring the first client

On the client machine, after installing the landscape-client package, please run this command:

$ sudo landscape-config --computer-title "My First Computer" --account-name standalone --url https://<servername>/message-system --ping-url http://<servername>/ping

If you used a custom CA, you will need to pass the --ssl-public-key parameter pointing to the CA file so that the client can recognize the issuer of the server certificat.

You can now accept your client in the Landscape UI, and it begins to upload data.

  • {i} If you configure an account password, the client will be automatically accepted when using that password.

Email alias

We recommend adding an alias for user landscape on your local environment, to ensure that important system emails get attention.

$ sudo vim /etc/aliases

Add a line landscape: <insert recipient's email address> to this file and rebuild your aliases

$ sudo /usr/bin/newaliases

LDS/ManualInstallation17.03 (last edited 2017-03-28 16:57:38 by ahasenack)